land and people
Banski Dvori, the seat of the Government, on St. Mark’s Square in Zagreb; this historical building was the residence of the Croatian bans (governors) until 1918. Until the shelling in 1991, during the Homeland War, Banski Dvori was the seat of the President of the Republic.
Political organisation

Executive power

The President of the Republic

The President of the Republic represents and acts for the Republic of Croatia at home and abroad. The President is elected pursuant to universal and equal suffrage by direct election for a period of five years.

The President of the Republic provides for the regular, balanced operation and stability of state authorities, is responsible for defending the state’s independence and territorial integrity, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, calls elections to the Croatian Parliament and convenes its first sitting, calls referenda, confides the mandate to form the Government, grants pardons, confers decorations and awards, and cooperates with the Government in forming and implementing foreign policy.

Presidents to the present day

Zoran Milanović (1966), diplomat and politician. Served as an advisor at the Croatian mission to the EU and NATO in Bruxelles from 1996 to 1999, President of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) from 2007 to 2016, and Prime Minister of Croatia from 2011 to 2016. He was elected as President of Croatia in 2020, as the SDP candidate.
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (1968), diplomat and politician. Minister of European Integration, 2003–05; Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, 2005–08; Ambassador to the United States of America, 2008–11; NATO Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy, 2011–14. She was elected president in 2015 as the candidate of the Croatian Democratic Union.
Ivo Josipović (1957), a university law professor and composer, was a member of parliament from 2004 to 2008. He was elected president in 2010 as the Social Democrat Party candidate.
Stjepan Mesić (1934), a lawyer and politician, participated in the Croatian Spring. He was an associate of Franjo Tuđman, but parted ways with him in 1994. He was the Croatian representative in the Yugoslav Presidency, and its last president in 1991. He was elected President of Croatia in 2000 as the Croatian People's Party candidate and was re-elected in 2005.
Franjo Tuđman (1922–99) was a member of the Partisan movement during the Second World War. After the war he served in the military, then became a historian, a participant in the Croatian Spring and dissident. He was the founder and chief ideologue of the Croatian Democratic Union. He was elected president in 1990 at the Parliament, and at elections in 1992 and 1997. He led the defence of Croatia and achieved territorial integrity.

The Government

The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises executive power. It consists of the Prime Minister, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and other ministers. It is responsible to the Croatian Parliament. The Prime Minister presents the Government to the Croatian Parliament and seeks a vote of confidence. If a majority of members of parliament return a vote of confidence, the Government assumes office.

Banski dvori, seat of the Government, on St Mark’s Square in Zagreb; this historical building was the residence of the Croatian bans (governors) until 1918.
Andrej Plenković, Prime Minister and president of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) since 2016. A graduate lawyer, he was a diplomat from 1994 to 2011 and held positions in Brussels and Paris (2002-2010), before being appointed Secretary of State for European Integration. As a member of the HDZ, he was elected to the Croatian Parliament (2011) and to the European Parliament (2013-2016).
Gordan Grlić Radman, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs since 2019.
Marija Pejčinović Burić, former Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, was elected as Secretary General of the Council of Europe in 2019. She is the second woman to hold that post since 1949.

Prime Ministers to the present day: Stjepan Mesić (1990), Josip Manolić (1990–91), Franjo Gregurić (1991–92), Hrvoje Šarinić (1992–93), Nikica Valentić (1993–95), Zlatko Mateša (1995–2000), Ivica Račan (2000–03), Ivo Sanader (2003–09), Jadranka Kosor (2009–11), Zoran Milanović (2011–16), Tihomir Orešković (2016). Andrej Plenković (since 2016).

The Government proposes laws and other acts to the Croatian Parliament, proposes the State Budget and annual accounts, executes laws and other decisions by the Parliament, adopts decrees to implement the law, conducts internal and foreign policy, directs and supervises the work of the state administration, takes care of the economic development of the country, and directs the performance and development of public services.